With a competitive market and a conducive environment for business, Hong Kong has been a preferred destination for global companies. An integral part of running a business here involves understanding the local accounting standards, a task that may seem daunting to many entrepreneurs.
This article unravels Hong Kong’s accounting standards and their impact on your business operations, specifically focusing on profit tax returns, the relationship between accounting and audit, and comparing statutory accounts with management accounts. Read on to equip yourself with insights that are integral to maintaining regulatory compliance and maximizing profitability in Hong Kong’s vibrant business scene.
Understanding the Hong Kong Accounting Standards (HKAS)
Hong Kong Accounting Standards (HKAS) are regulations established by the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (HKICPA) for the financial reporting of all profit-oriented entities incorporated in Hong Kong.
These standards, which include 41 distinct accounting standards, guide the preparation of general-purpose financial statements and other financial reporting.
What is the Role of HKFRS in Hong Kong’s Business Landscape?
The Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standard (HKFRS) issued by the HKICPA, is a set of accounting rules that apply to companies in Hong Kong.
These rules, known as Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards, have converged with International Financial Reporting Standards and aim to ensure that the financial reporting of all profit-oriented entities, including small and medium-sized businesses, is accurate and transparent.
The Annual Requirement of Financial Reporting
Every company incorporated in Hong Kong is required to prepare its financial statements annually, following the financial reporting standards established by the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance.
These financial statements, which must include a profit and loss account, a balance sheet, and a director’s report, provide a detailed account of the company’s financial transactions and state of affairs.
Decoding Company Financial Statement: HKFRS vs. HKAS
HKFRS and HKAS, while established by the same body, serve different purposes. HKAS includes all Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (HKFRS), Hong Kong Accounting Standards (HKAS), and interpretations issued by the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (HKICPA). On the other hand, HKFRS is a subset of HKAS that applies to the financial reporting of all profit-oriented entities.
Does Your Hong Kong Business Qualify for a Reporting Exemption?
Certain Hong Kong businesses may qualify for reporting exemptions under the SME-FRF (Small and Medium-Sized Entity Financial Reporting Framework) & SME-FRS (Small and Medium-Sized Entity Financial Reporting Standard).
This exemption allows eligible businesses to prepare simplified financial statements, which can significantly reduce the complexities of financial reporting.
Profit Tax in Hong Kong
A corporation is required to submit a profit tax return together with audited financial statements that have been evaluated by a firm that specializes in HKCPA.
Prior to the audit, the financial statements will be created by an accountant in line with the accounting rules, and in order to facilitate this process, there are a number of forms from the Inland Revenue Department (IRD) that need to be filled out.
Profits Tax Returns
There are three series of Profits Tax return forms.
- Profits Tax Return – Corporations (BIR51)
- Profits Tax Return – Persons Other Than Corporations (BIR52)
- Profits Tax Return – In Respect Of Non-Resident Persons (BIR54)
What’s the difference?
- Profits Tax Return – Corporations (BIR51):
This form is for corporations, which are legal entities separate from their owners. Corporations can include limited companies, public companies, and other types of incorporated businesses.
- Profits Tax Return – Persons Other Than Corporations (BIR52):
This form is for taxpayers who are not corporations. This typically includes unincorporated businesses, such as partnerships and sole proprietorships, and possibly certain types of trusts.
- Profits Tax Return – In Respect Of Non-Resident Persons (BIR54):
This form is specifically for non-residents. This could include individuals, corporations, or other entities that earn income in the jurisdiction but are not residents of Hong Kong.
HKAS and Profit Tax Return: How Does it Work?
HKAS plays a crucial role in the preparation of a company’s profit tax return.
The revenue, income, and profit reported in the company’s financial statements following HKAS are used as the basis for calculating the company’s tax liability.
Accounting and Audit: What’s the Relationship in Hong Kong’s Context?
Let’s remind ourselves of the differences between accounting and an audit.
Accounting is a continuous process that involves recording, classifying, summarizing, interpreting, and communicating financial information about a business. The goal is to present an accurate picture of a company’s financial health, which assists management in making informed decisions. Accounting helps track income, expenses, assets, liabilities, and cash flows, and prepares essential reports like balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements.
On the other hand, an audit is an independent, systematic examination of a company’s financial statements and records. Conducted by external or internal auditors, an audit verifies the accuracy and authenticity of the financial information presented in the accounts. It also ensures the company’s financial practices are in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and accounting standards. Essentially, an audit provides assurance to stakeholders that the financial statements prepared by the accounting process are reliable and trustworthy.
In Hong Kong, the relationship between accounting and auditing is intertwined.
The process of auditing involves an examination of the financial statements prepared following the HKAS to ensure their accuracy, consistency, and compliance with local regulations.
Statutory Accounts vs Management Accounts: What’s the Difference?
While both types of accounts contain financial information about a company, statutory accounts are mandatory and prepared annually for shareholders, Companies Registry, and tax authorities, adhering to HKAS. On the other hand, management accounts, prepared as per the company’s needs, assist in making business decisions and are not governed by HKAS.
The Impact of Standards in Hong Kong on International Financial Reporting
With HKAS being converged with International Financial Reporting Standards, the accounting standards in Hong Kong impact how global companies report their finances. They must ensure that their financial reporting is in line with HKAS when conducting business in Hong Kong.
Tips for Successful Submission of Financial Reports in Hong Kong
Knowing when and how to submit financial reports in Hong Kong is essential for businesses. The annual financial statements should be submitted along with a company’s Profit Tax Return to the Inland Revenue Department. Companies can leverage online platforms for the submission process, ensuring deadlines are met to avoid penalties.
In summary, here are some key points to remember:
- Hong Kong Accounting Standards (HKAS) guide the preparation of financial statements for all profit-oriented entities in Hong Kong.
- Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (HKFRS) are a subset of HKAS and play a crucial role in maintaining transparency and accuracy in financial reporting.
- The financial information in the financial statements prepared following HKAS is used to calculate a company’s tax liability.
- There’s a close relationship between accounting and audits in Hong Kong, as audits ensure financial statements’ accuracy and compliance with local regulations.
- Statutory accounts and management accounts serve different purposes, with the former being mandatory and regulated by HKAS, while the latter is more flexible and helps in decision-making.
- Knowing how and when to submit financial reports in Hong Kong can help avoid penalties and ensure compliance.
By understanding Hong Kong’s accounting standards, businesses can navigate through the financial landscape with confidence and improve their bottom line.
It’s advisable to engage with professional accountants in Hong Kong for accurate preparation of financial reports and profit tax returns, facilitating smooth business operations.